In late 2019, the APRALO Leadership Team proposed the initiation of an APRALO Policy Platform for 2020. After reviewing input from RALO members to the proposal and in light of the unexpected COVID-19 pandemic, the Leadership Team considers this APRALO Policy Forum to be a modest but useful kickstart to facilitate and coordinate ICANN policy-related discussions at a regional level.


The APRALO Policy Forum seeks to:

  • Facilitate informed, inclusive regional position development on issues within ICANN's remit
  • Support APRALO Leadership's participation as a regional partner to the ALAC Policy Platform


Open to all APRALO members interested in ICANN policy-related discussions, by subscription to the mailing list. The membership list is published below.


To begin with, this Policy Forum will be facilitated using this work space and the mailing list which will be moderated by members of the Leadership Team and supported by At-Large Staff. The ICANN Expected Standards of Behaviour will apply.

14 Sep 2020 



 ACTIVE [10] APRALO Register of Skills & Interests Project (Project RoSI) (2021-2022)

Background: Tentatively code-named "Project RoSI", this project is intended to produce a dynamic Register of Skills & Interests for APRALO.

Status: Ongoing. Project RoSI Small Team completed preliminary work on data to be presented to the RALO for consultation vide the Hot Topics Survey 2021-2022. See: Infographic report Infographic report

Dedicated Workspace:  Project RoSI Workspace


Staff Support Lead: Gisella Gruber

Mailing list: 

To subscribe to the APRALO Policy Forum mailing list (or read the archives / manage your subscription) please send a request to


Current membership of the APRALO Policy Forum comprises: 



Date Joined / (Resigned)Notes
Shreedeep RayamajhiChair

Nabeel Yasin
Gopal Tadipalli 
Dr.N.Sudha Bhuvaneswari
Namra Naseer
Asyraf Mierza Abd Rahma
Md Toufik Hayder
Kashif Adeel
Ayesha Iftikhar
Mohammad Kawsar Uddin
Md. Jahangir Hossain
Eranga Samararathna
Laxmi Prasad Yadav 
Rao Naveed Bin Rais 
Fouad Bajwa
Shidul Alam Kaisar 
Stacy Gildenston
Namra Naseer
Bibek Silwal
Udeep Baral
Samik Kharel
Jaewon Son
Amir Qayyum
Abdul Ghayoor Bawary
Suhaidi Hassan
Priyatosh Jana

Past Membership

    2020-2022 Membership

    Justine Chew (Co-Chair), Satish Babu (Co-Chair), Maureen Hilyard, Holly Raiche, Gunela Astbrink, Priyatosh Jana, Aris Ignacio Kristina Hakobyan, Fouad Bajwa, Gopal Tadepalli, Cheryl Langdon-Orr, Mohammad Kawsar Uddin, Narine Khachatryan, Amrita Choudhury, Shreedeep Rayamajhi, Jaewon Son, Mahmoud Lattouf, Lianna Galstyan, Amir Qayyum, Winthrop Yu, Prateek Pathak, Abdul Ghayoor Bawary, K Mohan Raidu, Suhaidi Hassan, Azatullah Dawoodzai, Sivasubramanian Muthusamy, Ali AlMeshal, Hilmi Ghalib, Nadira Alaraj



    APRALO Policy Forum Discussions Archive

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    1. Universal Acceptance [UA] is a fundamental requirement for a truly multilingual and digitally inclusive Internet. DNS is in the application layer. A huge plus in Distributed Computing is "Location Transparency". UA is subtly anti-theistic to this goal of designing applications that happen anywhere. UA is another way of indicating traceability.

      I suggest two parameters for scoring:

      1. Web Scriptability
      2. Incident Responsiveness and Manageability

      A good parameter to have on the score card is "Web Scriptability".

      A Case in Point: headless browser is a web browser without a GUI. They can Perform DDOS attacks on web sites, Increase advertisement impressions and Automate web sites in unintended ways. Google Chrome and Firefox are headless browsers.

      People use tags to aid classification, mark ownership, note boundaries, and indicate online identity. IMHO, UA at present is on the lines of "tags" in vernacular languages well adapted to the UNICODE. It is still a "metadata" that can be used in programming.

      IMHO, Another parameter to have on the score card is "Incident Responsiveness and Manageability".

      An incident may enable quick traceability to a "Local Geography (small footprint)" but its maximum impact may be elsewhere. 

      Hope this helps.

      Gopal T V

    2. APRALO Policy Forum 2020 Year End Report

      This Policy Forum, with its membership standing at more than 15 members, closed out 6 items in its maiden quarter ending December 2020 ( see: APRALO Policy Forum Discussions 2020 Archive ) and will continue to function in 2021 as the RALO's space for facilitating better informed, inclusive regional input on issues within ICANN's remit.

      In order to boost the level of output of this Forum, the APRALO Leadership Team will seek feedback on how to ease and improve participation of members via a series of short surveys. Part of our approach will be to establish factors that can contribute to increased participation and/or impediments to members' participation, as well as how to improve members' engagement while also lowering barriers to the same. It would also involves trialing the use of online tools such as Google-form surveys and Google Jamboards.

      In 2021, we will also embark on 2 identified projects: (1) Regional Inventory of Skills and Interests; and (2) Regional Hot Topics Survey 2021; one or both of which we anticipate will benefit other symbiotic initiatives planned for the RALO, eg. the APRALO Mentorship Program.

    3. APRALO Policy Forum Survey #1.2021 Report and Recommendations

    4. APRALO Policy Forum 2021 Year End Report

      We kick-started the year by conducting the APRALO Policy Forum Survey #1.2021 in Mar 2021 to identify key impediments to participating in the APRALO Policy Forum, and to seek ideas for addressing such impediments.  The report and recommendations from that survey guided our endeavors for the rest of 2021.

      As we approach the end of 2021, I am pleased to note that the APRALO Policy Forum has nearly doubled its membership as compared to this time last year. 

      We have also carried out a number of initiatives during the year which formed APRALO's contributions towards policy development, community engagement and capacity building. These are:-

      1. APRALO Statement on Subsequent Procedures Final Outputs, 1 Jun 2021, wherein APRALO, in endorsing the ALAC's Advice on Subsequent Procedures of 16 April 2021, also emphasized 3 elements of regional importance to us, these being:

      • to facilitate increased adoption of Universal Acceptance (UA) & Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs);
      • to facilitate increased & equitable access by “Global South”, community / niche TLD applicants through the Applicant Support Program (ASP) & Community Priority Evaluation (CPE) and a ban on private auctions; and
      • to advocate for ALAC to have automatic standing to file Community Objections (where it deems necessary).

      2. APRALO Webinar on Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs), 27 Jul 2021, where given the particular importance of IDNs for our region, we took the lead in this capacity building effort in association with the At-Large Capacity Building Working Group (CBWG), to support our RALO members and other interested At-Large members in understanding the history and existing landscape of IDNs in order to engage meaningfully in the work of the GNSO Expedited Policy Development Process (EPDP) on IDNs.  We managed to draw 65 participants.

      In addition, we have initiated 2 projects, which will now continue into 2022, both of which are designed to further support the region's work in various areas under ICANN's remit. These are:-

      3. APRALO Register of Skills & Interests Project (2021) which is designed to produce a dynamic Register of Skills & Interests for APRALO; and

      4. Regional Hot Topics Survey 2021 which will be designed primarily to solicit input from RALO members on what topics RALO members believe is of importance to our region and which APRALO should consider embracing in its agenda. Further, we hope to also use the 2021 survey to gauge RALO  members input in light of ICANN's FY21-26 operating priorities. 

      Finally, to prepare for 2022, we are conducting the APRALO Policy Forum Survey #2.2021 to seek feedback on the Policy Forum's role in facilitating better informed, inclusive regional input on issues within ICANN's remit.

      APRALO Policy Forum Discussion Archives

    5. APRALO Policy Forum Survey #2.2021 Report and Guide for 2022 Agenda

    6. Justine Chew 

      Thank you again for the activities of the APRALO Policy Forum.

      IMHO, usage of specific terms related to "Internet Technologies" will enhance the effectiveness of the deliberations in ICANN Working Groups. Attached please find my PPT presentation on "Internet Technologies" that provides a quick overview. We can develop this further if there is more interest in this approach.


      Whether we like it or not:

      • DNS has long been a serious compromise in the security of the web. https:// proved to be a great technical solution to prop a plethora of policies associated with the DNS.
      • New Services and technologies are becoming imperative with DNS.
      • The DNS database is distributed.
      • DNS makes the difference on:  
        • Performance: overcome network latency experienced by geographically distributed users.
        • Security: decrease vulnerability to spoofing and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks.
        • Reliability: guarantee internet domain queries are consistently and correctly resolved.
        • Availability: ensure users can reach your website at any given time.
        • Scalability: manage increased traffic as an organization’s business grow.

        The biggest challenge for most companies is that DNS is a complex system that requires an array of software, network infrastructure, hardware and specialized knowledge. For Example: Cloud Computing is a consolidated system.

      • Certain DNS servers may have outdated records. Some servers may have inefficient records that point your data packets towards the scenic route, taking you all around the Internet before the packets can reach the destination. It has srious raminfications with the rapidly scaling IoTs.

      Once again, I strongly suggest usage of specific terms related to "Internet Technologies" during our deliberations in ICANN.

      • Dr. T V Gopal
    7. Justine Chew 

      Goal: Safe and Stable approach to ensure that the "One Internet" is for the End Users.

       “Request for Comments” (RFC) turned 50 years on 7 April 2019. They began on 7 April 1969.

      From the technical perspective, RFCs have always been a boon for building Internet and making Governance happen with it.

      RFCs are the official documents of Internet specifications, communications protocols, procedures, and events. An Internet Standard is documented by a Request for Comments (RFC) or a set of RFCs. Today there are over 8,500 RFCs whose publication is managed through a formal process by the RFC Editor team. Most of the them (not all) are the responsibility of the Inernet Engineering Task Force (IETF)anyone could write an RFC for free.

      Anyone could read the RFCs for free. They are open to all to read, without any fee or membership.  In a simple language of Iinternet Technlogies, RFCs define how the Internet Works. Interoperability happens due to these RFCs. The elegance of the Internet is that in order to communicate between a mobile phone connected to a broadband provider in the Country A and a server in a data center in Country B, the two networks at either end of the connection do not need a relationship with each other. They have to interoperate.

      For the first few years of its existence, the RFC series was essentially a mailing list on paper from the postal service, and it was maintained by hand. Some RFCs are informational in nature. The RFC left questions open and was written in a less formal style. This less formal style is now typical of Internet Draft documents, the precursor step before being approved as an RFC.  They are now the official record of the Internet's design decisions, architecture, and technical standards. 

      A draft standard is not promoted to full standard for at least four months, after operational experience has been obtained, and when there is demonstrated interoperability between two or more independentmechanisms for implementation. Please see the figure below.


      In a world that is increasingly intertwined with the Internet, it’s becoming more difficult to maintain the position that the design of Internet protocols doesn’t have a political dimension. 

      I suggest that APRALO takes the lead in working with the RFC Editor @ for hyperlinking the pertinent documents that bind the Policies of Internet Governance to the Mechanism that is a double - edged sword at its core with no central authority & a "Gold Standard" behavior.

      Satish Babu As you would appreciate, it is very difficult to single out a specific RFC. However, I am venturing to suggest the following very useful RFC related to IDNs. 

      Request for Comments: 5894 ; August 2010; Informational
      Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA): Background, Explanation, and Rationale
      • Dr. T V Gopal

    8. I have been associated with the progress of Tamil on the Internet since 1999.

      Tamil All Character Encoding (TACE16) is a 16-bit Unicode-based character encoding scheme for Tamil language. There are atleast 25 strong differences between TACE16 and Unicode standard for Tamil language: Lot of investments have gone into TACE16. 

      I was associated with the performance tuning for TACE16 and it performs much better than Unicode Tamil. 

      TACE16 has been well documented and has renowned scholars in Tamil championing its design and development.

      Satish Babu You may be aware of this.

      • Dr. T V Gopal
    9. For the Records:

      According to official sources, Tamil Nadu has over 37,211 government schools and 8,403 government-aided schools which respectively educate 54.71 lakh students (65.79 per cent) and 28.44 lakh (34.20 per cent) students.

      I am serving as "Domian Expert" for Computer Science for the Textbook Preparation for Plus I (11th Class) and Plus 2 (12th Class) by the Government of Tamilnadu.

      This is my third such effort for the school students from 1998.

      In the current edition, we could introduce UNICODE (Tamizh, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam) to pave for Multilingualism and hopefully Universal Access. It has been an enriching study for me all along.

      • Dr. T V Gopal

    10. ICANN75 was another great experience for me. Thank you.

       "Dynamic Prioritization":

      In the domain of Operating Systems, it has a high potential for Starvation. One has to track the age of a given request for a resource waiting in the queue. In a In a generic system it can potentially result in (what I call) "waitlisted to no where" conditions,

      Predictable systems enable you to give a confident answer to the quite common question “When will this be done?”.

      Workflow management is about predictability. A process workflow happens when the set of tasks is predictable and there are repetitive pattern

      The real challenge is automating workflows to enhance "Productivity". 

      Suggestion: A Fireside Chat on the topic "Dynamic Prioritization and ICANN Remit".

      • Dr. T V Gopal

    11. It has been very useful to study the Multi-stakeholder model of ICANN from the following scoreable aspects.

      #1. openness: attaching more importance to transparency and communication in decision-making; 
      #2. participation: ensuring participation of all relevant stakeholders
      #3. accountability: clarifying the role of each party in the decision-making process; each stakeholder involved should assume responsibility for the role given to them
      #4. effectiveness: decisions need to be taken at the appropriate level and time, and deliver what is needed
      #5. coherence: ensuring coherence between diverse actions.

      In principle, multi-stakeholder model is better 'than governance by governments alone'.  A 'stakeholder' has a legitimate interest in a particular Internet governance issue. The model recognizes that not all stakeholders automatically proclaim as stakeholders, and not all multi-stakeholder processes include all stakeholders.

      Observation: The ICANN Multi - Stakeholder model has a high potential for resilience even though it has very limited or no wherewithal to control / regulate all stakeholders with / without ICANN.

      For future proofing this model, I find the following two aspects very valuable.

      1. Complexity - Please see the attachment

      Modelling+Internet+Governance 2.jpg

             2. Universality -  UNESCO's 303 Internet Universality Indicators's%20Internet%20Universality%20Indicators%20are,Accessibility%2C%20Multi%2Dstakeholder%20participation.

      The reality of multi-stakeholder participation is at times challenged by issues that relate both to the nature of the Internet that includes jurisdiction, enforcement, scale and the pace at which it changes and grows.

      A discipline of not blaming technology and localization for jurisprudence with local language support are the strong safeguards that I suggest.

      • Dr. T V Gopal
    12. APRALO Policy Forum 2022 Year End Report (up to Oct 2022)

      The APRALO Policy Forum has had a very productive year 2022, having delivered 4 key events and the APRALO Regional Hot Topics Survey 2022 project in the last 6 months. 

      Since its key planning meeting of 13 May 2022, the team had implemented its Fireside Chat Program by running its Inaugural Fireside Chat on GNSO PDP 3.0 on 26 May with Cheryl Langdon-Orr and myself, followed by the (2nd) Fireside Chat on Closed Generics with Holly Raiche and Olivier Crepin-Leblond on 8 June; and the (3rd) Fireside Chat on Transfer Policy with Steinar Grøtterød and Jonathan Zuck on 29 June; all of which were very well-received by participants. Click here to see the aggregated exit poll results.

      During ICANN75 in Kuala Lumpur, the team also delivered on 19 September, the At-Large Policy Session: ICANN’s Goal for a Multilingual Internet through Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs) featuring ICANN Board Member Edmon Chung, ICANN org’s Sarmad Hussain and (then) ALAC Vice Chair for Policy Jonathan Zuck. In this session, Jonathan shared some preliminary end-user demand perceptions on the availability and usability of IDNs in the Devanagari script from the recent limited end user survey which the At-Large conducted with selected Hindi-speaking communities in India. Click here to view the Zoom recording of this policy session.

      And, results of the APRALO Regional Hot Topics Survey 2022 (which the team conducted in Aug-Sep of 2022) were reported during the APRALO F2F meeting at ICANN75. This report, which is intended as input towards the setting of our regional priorities for the next 18-24 months, was also shared at the APRALO Monthly Call of Oct 2022 where the summary was discussed briefly.

      Finally, in light of my increasing commitments in respect of GNSO matters, I am stepping down from leading the APRALO Policy Forum, a role which I have had the privilege of holding since 2020. I wish to thank everyone who has supported the goals and projects of this Policy Forum and hope that its activities to-date have not only assisted our RALO members in some way but also showcased contributions APRALO are capable of within the At-Large and ICANN communities.

      Kind regards,
      Justine Chew

      APRALO Policy Forum Discussion Archives

      1. Thank you again for the Venn Diagram like mapping for the kind of expertise that ICANN can potential thrive from. 

        Knowing that you do like reading books, I also wish to mention that the following references may be of use for you.

        Bimal Krishna Matilal, Logic, Language and Reality: Indian Philosophies and Contemporary Issues, Motilal Banarsidass, 2017.

        Marcos Zampieri and Preslav Nakov (Editors), Similar Languages, Varieties, and Dialects, Cambridge University Press, 2021.

        • Dr. T V Gopal

    13. Satish Babu Justine Chew 

      My Opening Keynote Address titled: 

      Impact of Language on Income and Trade - 7 January 2023 @ 12 Noon IST 

      during the Indian Institute of Finance International Research Conference & Award Summit between  January 6-8 , 2023 

      Attached please find one slide that is pertinent to ICANN on IDNs. 



      The raw internet connectivity is not adequate. "Internet Network Value" is crucial for International Trade. IDNs is one such value. to address the "Language Barrier". Language is a key factor in the Gravity Model of International Trade I spoke on this keynote address.

      Some Pertinent Notes:

      #1. A "value network" is a graphical representation of social and technical resources within / between organizations and how they are utilized. The nodes in a value network are abstractions of people. Role is one useful abstraction but this need not be the only one. The nodes are connected by interactions that reflect  the outcomes / deliverables.

      #2. Metcalfe's law attempts to quantify the value of any network. The value is perceived to be in proportion to square of connected users of a system. This is very debatable.

      Internet has always been a technological marvel and economically baffling. There is no single owner but arguably anyone who has access rights to the internet can calim a tiny share as a sort of owner. There is a difference in what one pays for this "ownership" and what one is willing to pay. Presently, it is in surplus..most of the times one may be willing to pay more !!

      • Dr. T V Gopal