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Introduction of Two-Character Domain Names for .JETZT, .GLOBAL, .NEUSTAR, .KIWI, .BERLIN


by default, see this motion

Dev Anand Teelucksingh15.09.201422.09.2014 23:59 UTCn/an/an/an/a23.09.2014Krista Papac krista.papac@icann.orgAL-ALAC-ST-0914-02-00-EN

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The At-Large Community has taken note of the many Registry Services Evaluation Process (RSEP) requests submitted to ICANN by many New gTLD Registries applying for exceptions to Specification 5, Section 2 of the New gTLD Registry Agreement (see page 68 of the for the text of Specification 5, Section 2).

Many of the RSEP requests are for the release of two character ASCII labels not on the ISO 3166-1 alpha 2 standard. However, the ISO 3166-1 alpha 2 standard is not a static document; it will be updated to reflect changes to countries and territories. For example, BQ, CW and SX were added to the ISO 3166-1 alpha 2 standard in late 2010 (see This gives rise to a potential disparity in the implementation of Specification 5, Section 2 where future countries and territories would be treated differently than those countries and territories on today's ISO 3166-1 alpha 2 list.

However, two character ASCII labels at the second level have been made available for some gTLDs and many ccTLDs. Shorter domains are more desirable to potential registrants and two character ASCII labels can be used for alternative meanings than the one for the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 standard. For these reasons, absent any DNS-related security or stability issues, the ALAC believes that all the restrictions of two character ASCII labels at the 2nd level within a TLD should ultimately be removed, and has no problem with the current exceptions being approved.

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  1. A question re: Neustar's and .global's  RSEP applications which are different from recent RSEP requests. Neustar and .global are asking for the release of all two characters (letters and digits) at the 2nd level, irrespective of whether the two characters are on the ISO 3166-1 alpha 2 list or not. The ISO list consists of combinations of two letters. 

    Neustar's and .global RSEP requests would mean that two character combinations of letters and numbers are possible at the 2nd level for .neustar and .global.

    Would having domains where the letter o could be interchanged with the digit zero be a DNS related security issue, given the visual similarity of the letter "o" and the number zero ("0"), ?

    For example:

    • several two character strings with letter o:  ao, bo, co, to, zo, oa, ob, o1
    • the two character strings with digit 0 instead of letter o: a0,b0,c0,t0,z0,0a,0b,01

     Dev Anand



    1. Re: zero vs. the letter o we are starting to reach dangerous waters. Nobody's ever complained of visual similarity between l or 1 or I yes they are so visibly similar.. and the list continues...